Download 1177 B.C.: The Year Civilization Collapsed by Eric H. Cline PDF

By Eric H. Cline

In 1177 B.C., marauding teams identified purely because the “Sea Peoples” invaded Egypt. The pharaoh’s military and army controlled to defeat them, however the victory so weakened Egypt that it quickly slid into decline, as did lots of the surrounding civilizations. After centuries of brilliance, the civilized global of the Bronze Age got here to an abrupt and cataclysmic finish. Kingdoms fell like dominoes over the process quite a few a long time. not more Minoans or Mycenaeans. not more Trojans, Hittites, or Babylonians. The thriving economic climate and cultures of the past due moment millennium B.C., which had stretched from Greece to Egypt and Mesopotamia, all at once ceased to exist, besides writing platforms, know-how, and huge structure. however the Sea Peoples by myself couldn't have brought on such common breakdown. How did it happen?

In this significant new account of the factors of this “First darkish Ages,” Eric Cline tells the gripping tale of ways the tip was once caused through a number of interconnected mess ups, starting from invasion and insurrection to earthquakes, drought, and the slicing of foreign alternate routes. Bringing to lifestyles the colourful multicultural global of those nice civilizations, he attracts a sweeping landscape of the empires and globalized peoples of the overdue Bronze Age and indicates that it used to be their very interdependence that hastened their dramatic cave in and ushered in a gloomy age that lasted centuries.

A compelling blend of narrative and the newest scholarship, 1177 B.C. sheds new mild at the advanced ties that gave upward push to, and finally destroyed, the flourishing civilizations of the past due Bronze Age—and that set the level for the emergence of classical Greece.

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The succeeding pharaohs, for the rest of the second millennium BC, were content to rule over a country much diminished in influence and power. Egypt became a second-­rate empire; a mere shadow of what it had once been. It was not until the days of Pharaoh Shoshenq, a Libyan who founded the Twenty-­Second Dynasty ca. 945 BC—­and who is probably to be identified as Pharaoh Shishak of the Hebrew Bible23—­ that Egypt rose to a semblance of prominence again. Beyond Egypt, almost all of the other countries and powers of the second millennium BC in the Aegean and Near East—­those that had been present during the golden years of what we now call the Late Bronze Age—­withered and disappeared, either immediately or within less than a century.

In the thirty-­third year of his rule, sometime after 1450 BC, Thutmose III sent his own trade delegation to the land of Punt. 38 These are some of the few instances, along with the expeditions he sent to Lebanon to acquire cedar, where we can actually point to ongoing trade between Egypt and a foreign area during Thutmose III’s reign, though we suspect that much of the “tribute” (inw) depicted in the tomb scenes of the nobles from his reign is actually traded goods. 28 • • • Chapter One Among the far-­flung areas with which Egypt under Thutmose III was apparently trading, and from which he recorded receiving inw on three separate occasions, was a region known to the Egyptians as Isy, most likely to be identified with the coalition of city-­states in northwest Anatolia (modern Turkey) known as Assuwa, or with Alashiya, the name by which Cyprus was known during the Bronze Age.

We don’t actually know what they called themselves, although we do know that the Egyptians, Canaanites, and Mesopotamians each had a name for them. Furthermore, we do not know where they came from, although our suspicion points to Anatolia/Turkey as most likely. We do know that they established a civilization on Crete during the third millennium BC that lasted until ca. 1200 BC. Partway through this period, in about 1700 BC, the island was hit by a devastating earthquake that required the rebuilding of the palaces at Knossos and elsewhere on the island.

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