By Gwendolyn Leick
This Dictionary supplies a accomplished survey of the total variety of historical close to jap structure from the Neolithic around huts in Palestine to the enormous temples of Ptolemaic Egypt. Gwendolyn Leick examines the advance of the crucial sorts of historical structure inside their geographical and ancient context, and describes good points of significant websites reminiscent of Ur, Nineveh and Babylon, in addition to the various lesser-known websites. She additionally covers the differences of regular historic architectural buildings akin to pyramids, tombs and homes, information the development fabric and methods hired, and clarifies professional terminology.
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Extra resources for A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Architecture
The altar was rectangular or square with a central round slab made of limestone or alabaster (eg in ABUSIR, DASHUR: mortuary temple, KARNAK: Tuthmosis III). Another type was made of simple brick or stone masonry blocks with torus and cornice and a small ramp or a low parapet. In Mesopotamia, solid or hollow bench-like brick platforms often imitated architectural features of the temple, such as recessed panelling. Portable altars, with or without wheels, were common in archaic temples (eg KHAFAJE, ASSUR: Ishtar temple).
Stone, mainly limestone, was also plentiful and so was clay. Since earthquakes were not infrequent, a method of constructing walls with a timber grid filled in with mudbrick, resting on stone foundations, is still in use in many rural areas of modern Turkey. The standard of domestic architecture was already high in the earliest period of Anatolian civilisation, the Neo-lithicum (7th millennium BC). The houses at HACILAR had two storeys and a large central room complete with wallcupboards, windows and fireplaces.
The longitudinal cella in combination with a shallow ante-cella or vestibule is characteristic for Assyrian temples. The standard layout for the Jewish temples, as described in the Old Testament Temple of Solomo, also had a Langraum-cella (see JERUSALEM). 37 BRICKS ‘Broad-room’, ‘Steinerner Bau’ (Stone Building) (Uruk IV) bricks see BAKED BRICKS, GLAZED BRICK AND TILE, MUDBRICK Buhen Egypt, see map p. xvi. Egyptian fortress and stronghold on the southern border against Nubia. It was originally a XII Dynasty garrison, which was destroyed and eventually rebuilt during the XVIII Dynasty.