By D. Virgil Alfaro III MD, Peter E. Liggett MD, William F. Mieler MD, Hugo Quiroz-Mercado MD, Rama D. Jager MD MBA FACS, Yasuo Tano MD
A well known workforce of retina surgeons offers promising new advancements in age-related macular degeneration, with emphasis at the most important advances some time past 5 years. content material addresses all elements of administration, together with anatomy, body structure, and pathophysiology; imaging of the macula in age-related macular degeneration; prevention measures and therapy; therapy; and destiny instructions. Abundantly illustrated and beautifully geared up, this ebook serves as an outstanding reference and textbook.
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Extra info for Age-related macular degeneration : a comprehensive textbook
This paradox cannot be explained by simple ischemia. It is possible that lipid deposition in Bruch's membrane will limit the diffusion of oxygen. It has been theorized by some that this induces RPE ischemia with the subsequent production of VEGF. However, organisms are designed with the strategy, refined through evolution, of O2 diffusing through lipid membranes. Indeed, analysis has shown lipid membranes are not a rate-limiting step in oxygen diffusion (148, 149, 150 and 151), because the diffusion through lipid membranes approaches that of water (148).
Thomas EL, Langhofer M. Closure of experimental subretinal neovascular vessels with dihematoporphyrin ether augmented argon green laser photocoagulation. Photochem Photobiol. 1987;46:881-886. 34. Miller H, Miller B. Photodynamic therapy of subretinal neovascularization in the monkey eye. Arch Ophthalmol. 1993;111:5,855-5,860. 16. Van der Zypen E, Fankhauser F, Raess K. Choroidal reaction and vascular repair after chorioretinal photocoagulation with the freerunning neodymium-YAG laser. Arch Ophthalmol.
The indigestible portions of what is phagocytized daily contribute to the formation of lipofuscin. 25 cells may be occupied by lipofuscin. Room for normal cellular machinery is consequently limited. However, lipofuscin is not an inert filler material. Components of lipofuscin inhibit lysosomal protein degradation (48), are photoreactive (49,50), producing a variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other radicals, have detergent properties, and lipofuscin may induce apoptosis of the RPE (51).