By C. T. Leonides
This can be a 4 quantity series dedicated to the numerous topic of advances in electrical strength structures research and keep watch over options. The vast components concerned contain transmission line and transformer modelling. The 4 quantity series will specialise in advances in components together with strength movement research, financial operation of energy platforms, generator modeling, energy platforms, generator modeling, strength structures, generator modelling, energy procedure balance, voltage and gear regulate options, and procedure safety
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Additional resources for Analysis and Control System Techniques for Electric Power Systems, Part 4 of 4
Issues which must be considered beyond the algorithm's ability to estimate parameters include: how the determination of fault type is connected to the parameter estimation, monitoring of the quality of the estimates, and speed-reach considerations. In this section we will concentrate on issues related to the algorithms. It should be recognized, however, that a complete relaying program could also include: phase and ground distance protection, some directional comparison scheme, three-zone stepped distance protection, provision for single phase-tripping, high speed reclosing, auto-reclosing with sync check, breaker failure protection, sequence of events recording, and memory voltage for three-phase bus fault.
87) are not correctly scaled. The factor of 1/3 from Eq. (79) and the 2/K from Eqs. (23) and (24) along with the fi, from Eq. (35) should be considered if the actual phasors are needed. C. TRANSIENT MONITOR The difficulty with the unreliability of the estimates when the data window spans the pre-fault post-fault interval can be overcome by disabling the relay when the estimate does not fit the data. If we compute the samples that would result from the estimate denoted by the vector x then x = S X = S (STS ) _ 1 S T x (88) The samples and the reconstructed samples x are shown in Figure 14.
If we let v(t) and i(t) satisfy the differential equation, and denote the measured current and voltage by im(t) and vra(t) respectively, then 30 JAMES S. THORP AND ARUN G. (t) + L ^ ί ί ) = v (t) + R Ci(t) + L â l i Û ) dt dt and the current im(t) and voltage vm(t) are related by: R im(t) + L ^aii) = vm(t) + R €i(t) + L 4ÜÜ1 - ev(t) dt dt (46) (47) In other words, the measured voltage and current satisfy a differential equation such as Eq. (37) where the "currents" are without error and the "voltage" has an equivalent error made up of the voltage error plus a processed current error term.