By Maaike Groot
This quantity explores the position of animals within the rural groups of Civitas Batavorum within the first to 3rd centuries advert. Large-scale excavations of 2 settlements and a cremation cemetery in Tiel-Passewaaij have yielded an animal bone assemblage of round 30,000 fragments, and a worthwhile reference catalog of the distinct animal deposits is integrated right here. the writer additionally investigates using animals in funerary and different rituals, in addition to the function of cattle within the neighborhood economic climate and within the creation of surplus items for the Roman market.
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Additional info for Animals in Ritual and Economy in a Roman Frontier Community: Excavations in Tiel-Passewaaij (Amsterdam University Press - Amsterdam Archaeological Studies)
Special deposits and associated elements Complete skeletons, partial skeletons and bone concentrations were found in both settlements. Counting all identified bones from a complete skeleton would result in an overrepresentation of this species. Not counting skeletons at all would ignore the presence of the animal altogether. In most cases, a skeleton or group of bones from one individual was counted as a single bone, and is represented in the tables in this study as one fragment. Animals that were buried complete have not been used for food.
52 Roymans 2004, 12-13; Roymans/Derks 1994, 14. 47 Van Enckevort/Thijssen 2003, 71. 53 Van Es 1981, 194. 54 The use of sacrificial animals in the temples meant that livestock had to be supplied from the surrounding settlements. 55 1 . 4 . 3 p roductio n : rural settleme n ts The rural settlements in the Eastern Dutch River Area were usually small, with only one to a handful of farmhouses. Continuity from the Late Iron Age is observed at many rural settlements. The typical farmhouse found in these settlements was the byre house, housing man and livestock under one roof.
1 . 4 . 58 The first half of the 1st century AD was a period during which both this knowledge and money itself spread rapidly through the Dutch River Area. Batavian soldiers and ex-soldiers played a crucial role in this process. At this time, Batavian troops were stationed in Germania Inferior. During visits to their home villages, part of their army wages would be left behind. Roman coins dating to this period are frequently found in rural settlements. More crucial is that the soldiers would pass on their knowledge about how money could be used.